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Quarterly magazine OSTU agencies. Media registration number: ПИ № ФС77-75780 dated May 23, 2019. ISSN: 2220-4245. Subscription index in the official catalog "Subscription publications" of JSC "Russian Post": PP914.
The journal is included in the Russian Science Citation Index and in the List of Russian Scientific Journals .

Journal of Transsib Railway Studies V.2(50), 2022

Railways rolling stock, traction of trains and electrification

~~~Railways rolling stock, traction of trains and electrification~~~

Diagnosis of oil starving of motor-axle bearings of the wheel-motor unit of electric locomotives series 3es5k «ermak»

The development of the system is accompanied by the diagnostics of their achievement in the technical system. Using the possibility of identifying defects in nodal technical systems in the early stages of their occurrence in order to timely and promptly anticipate, the emergence of work productivity, identify simple repair time, identify material costs for replacement or deep restoration. Railway transport is also at the stage of a wide identification of various components and parts of the rolling stock. the appointment of diagnostic systems is a locomotive fleet, as a more identified technical unit. Today, the locomotive fleet uses hardware and software diagnostic complexes, microprocessor-based diagnostic systems, on-board and track monitoring systems that cover the entire range of diagnostic data of the main technical units. However, the use of the availability of systems requires constant improvement of the mathematical model of diagnosis. One of the options for choosing diagnostic models is the use of artificial intelligence research methods - sections of artificial neural networks, which, in comparison with the classical polynomial regression properties, are manifested by the properties of extrapolation accuracy and are applicable for predicting the values of diagnostic parameters according to the data that were due to the sampling of an artificial neural network. These characteristics make it possible to predict the development of defects and possible failures safely and accurately to obtain them and obtain an economic result. The paper presents an example of the development of a diagnostic artificial neural network model for diagnosing oil starvation of motor-axial bearings of the wheel-motor block of a cargo mainline electric locomotive of the 3ES5K «Ermak» series. This factor has a low level of reliability, so the use of continuous diagnostics is required, which requires the use of a point in time.
~~~Railways rolling stock, traction of trains and electrification~~~

Analysis of the characteristics of the traction load on high-speed sections to determine the operating conditions of power storage devices

An increase in the speeds of the electric rolling stock has an impact on the energy indicators of the operation of the traction power supply system. One of the technical solutions to the task of equalizing the traction load schedule to reduce voltage losses in the contact network is the use of electricity storage systems. The article presents the results of simulation modeling, which allow us to estimate the change in the energy indicators of an electric train with an increase in movement speeds for conditions of a single electric train following a section. According to the results of traction calculations, the influence of the voltage level on the electric train current collector on the technical speed is shown, the deviation of which for the typical voltage values in high-speed traffic is about 1%. For the selected section of rapid movement and technical speeds, the voltage level for traction calculations is justified. The dependences of the change in the average values of the load and the technical speed with an increase in the maximum speed up to 250 km/h are determined. Statistical estimates for the voltage on the pantograph of the Velaro RUS electric train are determined. The influence of the energy intensity of the onboard storage system with the corresponding charging characteristic on the reduction of maximum currents is shown. Dependences are obtained for the voltage drop on the electric train current collectors with an increase in movement speeds. The assessment of the maximum energy intensity of storage devices for the most severe operating conditions with a single electric train track on the site was carried out. These results allow us to determine the prospects for improving the method of calculating energy indicators and the use of accumulation systems in areas of rapid movement as on-board systems and compare their effectiveness with stationary systems based on simulation modeling, in which various control algorithms are implemented.
~~~Railways rolling stock, traction of trains and electrification~~~

Calculation of parameters and evaluation of the possibility of using chain compensated contact suspension with lever for a three-phase traction power supply system

A variant of application of a contact compensated chain suspension with levers and lateral current collection for a three-phase traction power supply system (TSTE) is considered. Two different-phase contact suspensions are located on different sides of the track axis. The electric rolling stock must have two current collectors that press on the contact wire from the track axis in opposite directions. The description of the design of the contact suspension as a whole and the main components, in particular, the fastening of the rods, which makes it possible to provide a vertical zigzag and limit the transverse movement of the contact wire, is made. At points at the supports, the levers are connected to the consoles and have a knot to create angular rigidity. In addition, the rotation of these levers is limited towards the axis of the path and in the opposite direction. This prevents the possibility of lashing of different-phase contact wires. In accordance with this design, a mathematical model of this contact suspension was developed based on the finite element method, which provides calculation in statics and dynamics, taking into account the current collector. To describe the pantograph, a common three-mass model is used. Based on the analysis of the results obtained using this model, the influence of the design parameters of the suspension, cross wind and the speed of the pantograph movement on the quality of the current collection is determined, the limits of applicability of the suspension under consideration, depending on the value of these parameters, are established. It has been determined that, in contrast to a conventional contact suspension with a vertical current collection, for suspensions with a lateral current collection, a side wind has a significant effect on the quality of the current collection. It is the wind speed that is the main factor limiting the possibility of using a suspension with lateral current collection.
~~~Railways rolling stock, traction of trains and electrification~~~

Improvement of a small diagnostic information collection device for monitoring the performance of electric rolling stock current receivers

During the operation of electric rolling stock current collectors, processes occur that lead to a decrease in the mechanical performance of current-carrying structures. Monitoring of the parameters of the operation of current collectors and the loads acting on them at present is difficult due to the fact that the electric potential between its elements and the body of the electric rolling stock corresponds to the operating voltage in the overhead contact line. The use of various methods of separating the data transmission medium and galvanic isolation of the sensor power supply is associated with some disadvantages, the main of which is the significant dimensions and mass of devices of this type. For research purposes, autonomous power supplies and information storage devices have been developed and used, which do not pretend to be used in the design of serial current collectors. The article describes a device designed to solve a variety of diagnostic tasks, using the principle of free energy utilization to power sensors, converters and a data transmission system to external media. Studies of the energy parameters of the electromagnetic field power selection modules and mechanical vibrations accompanying the operation of the current collector have been carried out. The main parameters of the piezoelectric module for power supply of a small-sized device for collecting diagnostic information are determined. The proposed approach should ensure the autonomy of the device when moving an electric rolling stock with a raised pantograph. At the same time, there is no dependence on the illumination or speed of movement characteristic of other alternative power sources. The layout solutions for the prototype of the device are presented, on the basis of which it is possible to build design documentation for the organization of the production of the installation batch. The role of the device in the system of functioning of controlled current collectors is described, as well as the change in the technology of their operation.
~~~Railways rolling stock, traction of trains and electrification~~~

Improvement the efficiency of using the electric cargo locomotives automatic control system on data of current measurements of onboard systems and instant traction calculations

The article proposes an approach to improve the efficiency of using the automatic train guidance system based on instantaneous traction calculations using the actual movement parameters according to current measurements of on-board systems of electric locomotives. A critical analysis of scientific research on the improvement of auto-guidance systems for freight mainline electric locomotives based on modern technologies and machine learning algorithms, neural networks has been carried out. As a rule, all existing approaches to determining the optimal train driving modes are based on the application of traction calculation rules with the empirical setting of movement resistances and other factors without taking into account the real influence of the external environment. The results of comparison of traction calculations in the section of the West Siberian test site according to the current rules and in the KORTES program with the actual data of the on-board measurement systems of the 2ES6 series electric locomotive are presented. Based on the data deciphered from the recorders of motion parameters of electric locomotives of the 2ES6 series, the laws of control of the excitation current at rheostatic and running positions in the traction mode are investigated. The possibility of using the measured data of the on-board systems of electric locomotives to determine the parameters of the train, including the torque of the traction motors, the traction force of the electric locomotive sections, the actual total resistance to movement, inertial properties, etc., is substantiated. The calculation of these parameters for the traction mode is performed. The concept of equivalent mass is introduced and expressions are presented for determining the parameters of a train based on the equation of motion in the form of small increments of measured and calculated data. The obtained results of determining the parameters of the train based on instantaneous traction calculations and data of current measurements of the on-board systems of electric locomotives showed statistical stability and can be used in real time for automatic train guidance systems, providing an increase in the accuracy of determining control actions, taking into account the actual influence of the external environment and increasing the efficiency of using the automatic guidance system for freight trains. locomotives in general.
~~~Railways rolling stock, traction of trains and electrification~~~

Mathematical methods for reliability verification of data on reliability of locomotives, their operation and maintenance

In the practice of railway transport and the locomotive complex, the average statistical data used in practice are not homogeneous, which is usually called “average temperature in the hospital” in the literature. The homogeneity of data is determined by their unimodality, i.e. the presence of one process in the sample. Unsuccessful sampling leads to its bimodality and even multimodality. It is proposed to check for unimodality of the initial data using the consequence of the law of large numbers, according to which, with an increase in the number of data, homogeneous samples tend to one of the distribution laws of a random variable: normal, exponential, lognormal, or another known law. Therefore, any unimodal sample must meet the goodness-of-fit test, which the article proposes to use the Pearson test (“chi-square”, χ2). The unimodality of the data is proposed to be estimated through the probability of compliance with the law of distribution of a random variable chosen for consideration, considering the probability of more than 0.3 (30%) to be sufficient. On the example of locomotive operation data and on-board microprocessor systems data, data are shown that cannot really be unimodal, but there is data that requires changing the sampling rules to achieve unimodality. For example, when considering the average daily runs of locomotives by series at specific home depots with participation in one type of traffic (main traffic, shunting or switching work), unimodality is achieved. An attempt to enlarge the data (take several series, several polygons, etc.) leads to the loss of unimodality. The article considers the unimodality of these on-board microprocessor control systems MSU-TP for diesel locomotives of the 2TE116U series. The expected operating time for the positions of the driver's controller turned out to be multimodal data. Unexpectedly, the current of the traction motors turned out to be unimodal, regardless of the driving position of the driver's controller.
~~~Railways rolling stock, traction of trains and electrification~~~

Influence of the power bus design on the current symmetry in the arm branches of a rectifier-inverter converter on igbt-transistors in their parallel connection

An urgent issue is to increase the power factor of electric rolling stock. One of the ways to increase the power factor in the traction and regenerative braking modes was proposed by the scientists of IrGUPS - this is the use of a rectifier-inverter converter on IGBT with modified control algorithms. This solution allows to significantly reduce the consumption of reactive current from the contact network, increase the capacity of railway sections, increase the technical speed, increase the efficiency of the traction power supply system, and also increase the amount of electricity returned to the contact network in the regenerative braking mode. The study of the performance of this converter is of interest. The transported volumes of goods on the railway lines of the Russian Federation continue to increase. One of the key links in ensuring the specified growth rates of tonne-kilometer work is the availability of powerful traction rolling stock equipped with an appropriate traction drive. A powerful traction drive is characterized by the consumption of significant current. To ensure its flow over the arms of the converter, a parallel connection of power semiconductor devices is used. For modern converters of electric locomotives, 4 parallel branches of power switches are used in the arm. The features of the parallel operation of the arm branches affect the performance of the converter on IGBT transistors. This article proposes to consider one of these features, namely the influence of parasitic inductances on the distribution of currents in the parallel branches of the converter, depending on the connection point of the AC power bus. The study was carried out using the Matlab Simulink software package. The article discusses various options for the topology of connecting power buses and presents diagrams of the distribution of currents in the parallel branches of the arm for each connection method. An assessment was made of such parameters as the spread of the peak current of switching on the branches of the arm, the time of current equalization during the conduction period, and the difference in the magnitude of the current in specific branches. Based on the results of the study, as well as taking into account the existing dimensions for the equipment of AC electric locomotives, a conclusion was made about the most optimal option for connecting power buses.
~~~Railways rolling stock, traction of trains and electrification~~~

Prediction of energy efficiency indicator for locomotives

A significant share of JSCo «Russian Railways» expenses falls on the purchase of diesel fuel and electric power for train traction. In this connection, the task of ensuring rational consumption of energy resources acquires special importance. Its solution is impossible without a well-functioning system for planning and forecasting the energy efficiency of locomotives. The article proposes a method for predicting specific energy consumption (SEC) for train traction, based on determining predicted values of transportation work and fuel and energy resources consumption by extrapolating time series, which consists in spreading the trends in changes in the values established in the past to the future period. A distinctive features of the developed method is the determination of seasonality indices and consideration of the rhythm of changes in the indicators. In cases where the forecast period includes months of the first or fourth quarters, a formula is proposed for determining the forecast value of the SEC, taking into account the influence of the atmospheric air temperature. The calculations performed showed that the application of the proposed method for structural divisions with different volume and nature of transportation work and the level of the SEC ensures a sufficiently high accuracy of train traction energy cost forecasting. The method is included in the Methodology for Analysis and Prediction of Fuel and Energy Resources Consumption for Traction of Trains developed by OmGUPS and implemented in the railroad network of the Russian Federation.
~~~Railways rolling stock, traction of trains and electrification~~~

Aerodynamic impact of the high-speed electric train «afrosiyob» on opposite trains

At present, the “Afrosiyob” high-speed passenger train runs on the Tashkent - Samarkand, Samarkand - Karshi, Samarkand - Bukhara sections. In the near future, it is planned to launch freight trains on sections of the Bukhara-Misken route. On high-speed double - track sections Tashkent - Samarkand, Samarkand-Navаi, the movement of freight trains is combined with passenger trains. Which, in turn, negatively affects the throughput of stations and hauls. In connection with this, the actual issue is the movement of freight trains on these sections. Additional research is needed to increase the capacity of sections where freight and high-speed passenger trains run. The article considers options for the aerodynamic interaction of freight and high - speed passenger trains moving in one or the opposite direction. At the same time, the idea of the safe organization of freight trains during the movement of high-speed passenger trains was put forward. As a result of this study, the possibilities of carrying cargo trains in one direction or in the opposite direction are determined by ensuring the safety of movement on two-way parcels in which high-speed “Afrosiyob” high - speed electric trains travel. This makes it possible to develop recommendations for more effective use of the ability of parcels to conduct trains. When calculating the aerodynamic interaction, scientific ideas put forward by scientists from Europe, the USA, Russia and other countries were analyzed. Methods for solving the Navier - Stokes equations using existing programming models are described.
~~~Railways rolling stock, traction of trains and electrification~~~

Features of the interaction of the crew and the path when movement of the ep2k electric locomotive in small radius curves

The article discusses the design features of the mechanical and crew parts of the passenger electric locomotive DC EP2K, which directly have or causes an impact on the rail track. The purpose of the work is to consider the features of the interaction of the crew and the track when moving this electric locomotive in small radius curves by evaluating the forces arising in the "wheel-rail" contact of the three-axle bogies of the EP2K electric locomotive under these conditions. The need to solve such a problem is caused by the results of the analysis of statistical data on the wear of the ridges of the wheels of EP2K electric locomotives. These electric locomotives are operated at the united railway landfill, where there are a large number of curved sections, including curves of small radius. To achieve this goal, a design scheme of a three-axle trolley of an EP2K electric locomotive has been compiled, which allows a quantitative assessment of the forces acting in contact with the wheel ridges with the relay heads. According to the calculation scheme, a system of equations has been compiled, the solution of which makes it possible to estimate the forces between the ridge and the inner face of the rail head. Based on the results of the calculation of the guiding forces of the wheel pairs of the three-axle bogie of the EP2K electric locomotive, it is concluded that the values of the guiding force acting on the second wheel pair are comparable to the forces acting on the first and third wheel pairs, and in some variants even exceed the values of these forces. The obtained results can be used for further research on the development of measures aimed at reducing the wear of the ridges of the wheels of electric locomotives of the EP2K series under operating conditions.
~~~Railways rolling stock, traction of trains and electrification~~~

Investigation of temperature modes of operation of diesel locomotive cooling systems during operation

The reliability of diesel locomotive operation largely depends on its temperature conditions. The stability of temperature conditions should be provided by the cooling system, which regulates the heat removal from the coolant depending on its temperature and the operating mode of the diesel engine. During operation, with the existing algorithms for the operation of standard cooling systems, significant temperature drops of the coolant are observed over fairly short time intervals. This negatively affects the reliability of the diesel engine. On different series of diesel locomotives, the system for regulating the operation of refrigerator fans may differ significantly. To regulate the air flow through the refrigerator sections, an algorithm is used to turn on or off a certain number of motor fans or to change the oil flow through an axial piston type hydraulic machine, or to regulate the oil level in a torque converter. To develop an algorithm for controlling the operation of the cooling system in order to stabilize temperature conditions, it is necessary to study the processes implemented in operation. The article presents the results of the study of temperature fluctuations of the coolant during the operation of locomotives. According to the results of the study, the realizable rates of increase and decrease in the temperature of the coolant, taking into account the inertia of the process, are established. It has been established that standard cooling systems do not allow exceeding the established limits, but do not exclude significant changes in the temperature of the coolant when changing the operating mode of the diesel engine. The obtained results can be used to improve the management of heat exchange processes in order to stabilize the temperature conditions of the diesel engine, which will increase the reliability of its operation.
~~~Railways rolling stock, traction of trains and electrification~~~

Study of the traction current distribution along the panhead of the rolling stock pantograph in the motion mode

Resistive heating of the pantograph head due to the flow of traction current through the conductive elements of the upper node, has an uneven distribution along the frame structure and depends on the location of the contact wire on the insert. The aim of the work is to develop a mathematical model for calculating power losses in the pantograph panhead, allowing to estimate its value, taking into account the zigzag of the contact wire during the movement of electric rolling stock. The subject of the study is the pantograph panhead. The paper gives an example of calculating the frame skid of a pantograph equipped with carbon strips. Experimental studies of the current distribution over the shunts of the panhead depending on the position of the contact wire were carried out in February 2021 in the laboratory "Designs of contact networks, power lines and current collection devices" using a complex for testing current collection devices. The calculation of the heating power of the panhead is determined by the Joule-Lenz law. The results of the calculation showed that the maximum heating power is observed when the contact wire is in the middle of the panhead, while the places of the greatest losses located along its edges are above the places where the shunts are attached. The model makes it possible to obtain a functional dependence of the heating value along the panhead. The obtained results of the skid heating power distribution make it possible to supplement the complex model of the thermal state of the pantograph developed at the Omsk State Transport University with the participation of the authors of the article. The versatility of the developed model makes it possible to investigate various zigzags of the contact wire and evaluate the effect on the distribution of traction current along the panhead, depending on the location of the shunts and their number.
~~~Railways rolling stock, traction of trains and electrification~~~

Management efficiency locomotive maintenance and repair

The article presents the results of the development and implementation of a method for controlling the technological processes of repairing locomotives based on network planning. The methodology allows you to track online bottlenecks during current repairs and reduce the duration of the critical path by varying the time indicators of events and works, using the aggregate-nodal repair method, redistributing resources between critical and non-critical works. The developed methodology is based on the adjustment of basic repair networks, taking into account the workload of process equipment and repair personnel, the availability of spare parts and materials, the need for unscheduled work during the planned installation of a particular locomotive for repair. This approach was implemented within the framework of the automated control system (ACS) «Network Schedule» and provides control and adjustment of the implementation of technological operations according to the indicators of technological preparation of repairs. An algorithm has been developed for determining a generalized performance indicator when assessing the quality of functioning of an automated maintenance and repair control system for a locomotive in service locomotive depots.

Transport and transport-technological systems of the country, its regions and cities, organization of production in transport

~~~Transport and transport-technological systems of the country, its regions and cities, organization of production in transport~~~

Prospects for the use of blockchain technology in the organization of the transportation process and supply chain

The main purpose of this article is to analyze the tools of blockchain technologies used in the field of supply chains. To achieve this goal, a detailed analysis of individual technologies is carried out, practical examples of their use are given, proving the useful effectiveness of its integration. The spread and formation of information technologies are an existing fact in the modern world. Over the past decades, this direction has determined the main trajectories of the development of the economy, industry and society as a whole, which in turn leads to enormous changes in the aspect of technological progress. The formation and development of the digital environment is one of the top priorities of most developed countries, including the Russian Federation, the USA, Germany and others. Modern technological progress is characterized by the development and formation of various information technologies that contribute to improving the rational use of resources and improving the efficiency of modern enterprises. Currently, there is a huge variety of applied and professional tasks, the most effective solution of which involves the use of various kinds of information technologies. In this article, the question is raised about the relevance of using Blockchain technology, about possible problems of its implementation, about what blockchain can give to various sectors of the economy and logistics. To understand the question of how the blockchain works, the second-generation Ethereum blockchain is taken as a basis, which includes an updated system of smart contracts and much more. Topical issues that blockchain is able to solve in logistics, such as inventory and cargo tracking, authentication, transparency in supply chains, increasing the speed of cargo delivery, and the creation of a freight market, are considered. The possibility is also considered and a description of the application of this technology on the railway network of Uzbekistan is given. This technology is applicable in many sectors of the modern rapidly developing world and is able to accelerate the development of the digital economy.