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Quarterly magazine OSTU agencies. Media registration number: ПИ № ФС77-75780 dated May 23, 2019. ISSN: 2220-4245. Subscription index in the official catalog "Subscription publications" of JSC "Russian Post": PP914.
The journal is included in the Russian Science Citation Index and in the List of Russian Scientific Journals .

Journal of Transsib Railway Studies V.4(52), 2022

Railways rolling stock, traction of trains and electrification

~~~Railways rolling stock, traction of trains and electrification~~~

Simulation of rolling stock dynamics considering the elasticity of the wheelset as a prediction method for life and durability of its elements

The wheelset and its components (the axle and the wheel) are subject to technical regulation. Therefore, in order to establish the assigned service life in accordance with TRCU 001/2011 (Technical Regulations of the Customs Union) and the examination frequency taking into account the durability parameters of rolling stock components in accordance with VNIIZhT RD 27.05.01-2017, it is necessary to assess the operational loading obtained from the running testing results, with respect to the part strength characteristics which are calculated during the bench tests. At present, to estimate the stress-strain state (SSS) in various machine-building structures, the strain measurement method is widely used, which allows to assess their performance with high accuracy. However, determining the SSS of a wheelset is not only a difficult task due to the constant rotation and movement of the wheelset relative to the bogie, but also expensive due to the employment of special non-contact measuring systems. Development of a dynamic model using modern software systems allows determination the stress-strain state of the wheelset elements by creating dynamic models as a system of perfectly rigid and elastic bodies connected by strength members and hinges. To confirm the adequacy of the parameters obtained in the simulation, verification is carried out according to the results of running dynamic strength tests. Thus, using the obtained model of the rolling stock and the track it is possible to make life and durability assessment as well as optimize the main rolling stock components. On the example of a freight gondola car model, a diagram of the dependence of dynamic stress amplitude distribution on the frequency of the occurrence in the wheel has been obtained, and considering the results of the earlier bench tests of standard specimens and full-scale wheels the period has been determined for durability from the moment of crack initiation in the wheel up to its fracture, as well as the assessment of the safety factor for durability is given.
~~~Railways rolling stock, traction of trains and electrification~~~

On the estimation of the influence of wind load on a freight train

The article is devoted to the research of the of wind load effect on the aerodynamic component to the movement of a freight train. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the impact of aerodynamic resistance on the consumption of fuel and energy resources (FER) on train traction. The article shows the high significance of this problem for Joint Stock Company Russian Railways (RZD JSC). The conclusions were drawn from the analysis of statistical data on the routes of locomotive drivers, working on the Pallasovka-Verkhniy Baskunchak section, which is undergone to wind loads. The SOLIDWORKS application was used to design a train with a locomotive and gondola cars coupled on an embankment, and SOLIDWORKS Flow Simulation plug-in was used to simulate wind load, different in speed, varying from 0 to 90º. The values of the force of aerodynamic resistance to movement for the train as a whole and for each unit of the rolling stock separately were obtained. Using the methods of the theory of train traction, the influence of aerodynamic drag on fuel consumption for traction has been assessed. Based on the obtained values of the aerodynamic drag forces and patterns of air flow distribution, conclusions were drawn about the effect of loading a gondola car on an increase in traffic resistance. Conclusions are drawn about the effect of wind load on each unit of rolling stock in the train. It was found that when the wind is directed at an angle to the axis of the path, the force of the wind effect increases, compared with the case when the angle between the axis of the path and the velocity vector is zero. The experimental data on the increase in resistance from the wind load are confirmed by theoretical calculation, as well as practical processing of routes machinists. This article demonstrates the need for a separate regulation of fuel and energy resources in the event of wind loads, and may be useful in further detailed study of the aerodynamic drag of freight trains.
~~~Railways rolling stock, traction of trains and electrification~~~

Simulation modeling of the operation of electricity storage devices in post-accident and forced operating modes of the traction power supply system

One of the properties of the reliability of the power supply of electric rolling stock of railways is the trouble-free operation of the traction power supply system in various modes of its operation. For post-emergency and forced modes of operation of the traction power supply system, a decrease in load capacity is characteristic. In order to ensure the throughput and carrying capacity of the railway section by traction power supply devices, it is proposed to consider the use of electric power storage devices on electric rolling stock and in the traction power supply system. Studies conducted by domestic and foreign researchers allow us to evaluate the effectiveness of alternative solutions to improve the reliability of power supply, which include various options for the use of electric power storage devices on electric rolling stock and in the traction power supply system. This article presents the results of a review of these solutions, a simulation model of a traction power supply system and an electric rolling stock with power storage devices based on various batteries and a supercapacitor is proposed. Modeling of changes in the modes of operation of the traction power supply system is carried out taking into account the state control of switching devices. The calculation results allow us to estimate the voltage drop at the output of electric power storage devices, including taking into account the exponential zone of the discharge characteristics of batteries, to estimate the voltage change for a given electric traction load depending on the energy intensity of the storage device, made on the basis of the most common types of batteries and a supercapacitor.
~~~Railways rolling stock, traction of trains and electrification~~~

Expansion of the adjustment range of the air distributor № 483

Currently, in the brake system of operated cars, there is a problem of lack of brake pressure on the wheel, which is necessary for the movement of the train at a set speed in accordance with the regulatory documentation. This is due to the tendency to increase the mass of trains and the maximum load of cars with a constant tare weight, which requires an extended range of pressure control in the brake cylinder by an air distributor or auto mode, depending on the load of the car. To solve this problem, calculations were made of the braking coefficient of cars equipped with air distributors № 483, which showed that the freight car was not equipped with brakes to run as part of a train at a set speed. In the course of engineering studies, it turned out that increasing the spring rate of loaded and medium modes can increase the adjusting range of the air distributor and partially solve the problem of lack of brake pressure. Thus, it is proposed to recalculate the stiffness of the adjusting spring. Calculations of the rigidity of regular and proposed springs were made. The braking coefficient has been recalculated, taking into account the increased spring constant. As a result, this coefficient has increased, which makes it possible to remove speed limits. The proposed method for upgrading the air distributor can be carried out on all types of repairs, which facilitates the implementation process.
~~~Railways rolling stock, traction of trains and electrification~~~

Investigation of reliability and improvement of the efficiency of the hydrostatic fan drive of the diesel locomotive cooling system

The design of the hydrostatic fan drive of the cooling system of diesel engines of passenger locomotives of the TEP70 all series is considered. According to the results of the analysis of malfunctions of components and parts of the cooling system of locomotives, it showed that the main reasons for the failure of the hydrostatic fan drive are: the destruction of the housing and overheating of the bearings of the hydraulic motor, oil leakage at the installation site of the rubber diaphragm and loss of rigidity of the spring of the thermostat. The reasons for which are often the temperature conditions and the life of the parts. The article discusses the issues of improving the efficiency of the hydrostatic fan drive of the cooling system of diesel locomotives. An increase in the life of the hydraulic motor can be achieved by eliminating idle from its operating time, since it is connected by a rigid coupling with the diesel shafts. Ensuring the independence of the operation of the hydraulic motor relative to the diesel engine is possible by changing the design of the hydraulic fan drive, by installing a viscous coupling for the transfer torque of the shaft only during the period of necessary useful work, when a certain oil temperature is reached. To increase the reliability of the thermostat, the possibility of installing an additional rubber diaphragm with increased tension force, for trouble-free operation of the thermostat when the pressure reaches 12 MPa and when the oil viscosity decreases, is considered. A malfunction of the thermostat often leads to the most serious consequences, up to the failure of the locomotive, where the most common cause is the loss of rigidity of the spring of the thermostat due to the jamming of the spool, which affects the redirection of the oil flow, and there is a high probability of an increase in the temperature of oil or water in the system. The considered main malfunctions of the hydraulic fan drive and ways to solve them will significantly increase the reliability of its operation and the efficiency of passenger locomotives.
~~~Railways rolling stock, traction of trains and electrification~~~

Ensuring the accuracy of the assembly of the device for monitoring the alignment of motor-axial bearings of locomotives methods of dimensional analysis

The article is devoted to the description of the requirements for the accuracy of control devices and the development of methods to ensure the claimed dimensional accuracy by methods of dimensional analysis. The conditions for ensuring the accuracy of the assembly scheme, the determination of the dimensional chain and dimensional analysis of the dimensional chain during the assembly of the control device, as well as the main causes of errors during assembly and ways to eliminate them are listed. In addition, the consequences of the influence of irregular gaps in the interfaces of the control device parts on the measurement accuracy are presented, various types of assembly dimensional chains are considered, tasks solved when calculating the dimensional chain. The paper presents a compiled dimensional chain of the technological process of assembling a measuring instrument for monitoring the alignment of the inserts of motor-axial bearings of traction electric motors of locomotives, which represents a dimensional chain of the first type and is a chain with linear dimensions and vertically parallel links. The purpose of the work is to substantiate the calculated tolerances and limit deviations of the links of the assembly dimensional chain, providing the required value of the closing link for the proper functioning of the assembled measuring instrument. The paper describes the selection of the closing link of the dimensional chain, the selection of the links that make up the dimensional chain, the calculation of the limiting deviations of the closing link that ensure the required measurement accuracy during operation of the control device and the calculation of the limiting deviations of the components of the links of the dimensional chain by the "maximum-minimum" method. Thus, the article presents a solution to the design problem of dimensional analysis, which consists in determining the accuracy of the component links of the dimensional chain when assembling the control device according to the known calculated tolerance of the closing link and its limit deviations.
~~~Railways rolling stock, traction of trains and electrification~~~

Increasing the technical characteristics of autonomus locomotives by a lithium-ion traction accumulator battery

The main subject of this article is consideration of the possibility of applying in electric circuit of the diesel locomotive hybrid power sourse, thats consists of diesel internal combustion engine and traction energy storage (li-ion accumulator battery). The main target of this work is to describe the effectiveness of the applying Li-ion energy storage in traction and diesel internal combusion engine start modes. At the same time, the regular used lead-acit battery is excluded from the locomotive circuit and replaced by a traction accumulator battery. By using numerical simulation methods, the article considers the possibility of starting a diesel internal combustion engine with a traction li-ion accumulator battery and possibility of the increasing the torque of electric traction motors and technical characteristics of the locomotive when the li-ion traction accumutalor battery is turned on as an additional source of energy. The relevance of the results is to get data about increasing carrying mass of the train when using a hybvid energy source on a diesel locomotive. The results of the work demonstrate the effectiveness of the use of a traction battery it traction and engine start modes, while improving the performance of the locomotive. The conclusions of the work contain an analysis of the results of mathematical modeling of the use of a traction battery.
~~~Railways rolling stock, traction of trains and electrification~~~

To the study of the efficiency of locomotives of electric traction in the kokand - andijan section of the uzbek railway

The subject of research is the evaluation of the effectiveness of different modes of energy-optimal control of the movement of a freight train of a unified mass by AC freight electric locomotives of the Uz-El series with asynchronous electric motors on the flat section of Kokand - Andijan of the Uzbek railway. Purpose of the study: substantiation of the main performance indicators of electric traction locomotives, taking into account the given traffic schedule, using various options for the optimal mode of controlling the movement of a freight train with a unified train mass on a real flat section of the Uzbek railway. The methods and methodology of the research are the theoretical foundations of locomotive traction, the mathematical theory of optimal object control, as well as the C # programming language (C Sharp) with the development of mock-up applications in the Microsoft Visual Studio 12.0 programming environment.As a result of the study, energy-optimal curves, kinematic parameters of the movement of a freight train and parameters of the main indicators of the energy efficiency of the investigated electric locomotive for different options for traction calculation on the real flat section of Kokand - Andijan of the Uzbek railway were obtained. The obtained kinematic parameters of the movement of freight trains with a unified mass of the train and the parameters of the efficiency indicators for the use of the studied electric locomotives can be used in the Kokand locomotive depot, which will allow developing regime maps for driving freight trains by these electric locomotives, depending on the level of complexity of the track profile and various conditions for organizing rail transportation of goods.
~~~Railways rolling stock, traction of trains and electrification~~~

Improvement the design and technology of repair the diesel locomotives traction electric motors

The subject of consideration of this article is the traction electric motor of a diesel locomotive. Traction electric motor (TED) is the main element of power transmission, therefore, the reliability of the locomotive as a whole depends on its reliability. The main causes of failures of traction motors in operation are considered. Based on the analysis of statistical data, it can be argued that the most damaged part of the traction motor is its armature. In the context of the introduction of new classes of insulation heat resistance by the new standard - GOST 2582-2013 - ensuring the reliability of the anchor is especially important. The causes of the most common failures of TED in operation have been established: violation of the integrity of the insulation of the winding by the sharp edges of the extreme sheets of the anchor core iron package when laying the winding in the grooves of the core, vibration of the extreme sheets of the anchor core iron package when exposed to electromagnetic forces with a frequency multiple of the number of poles of the electric motor, imperfection of the fastening system of the frontal parts of the armature winding, mismatch of the coefficients of temperature linear elongations copper windings, insulating materials and steel core of the armature. The result of the analysis of the design of serial TED were proposals to improve the design of the nodes most prone to failures. To eliminate breaks in the insulation of anchors in operation, a new design of pressure washers and an improved technology for impregnating anchors of commercially produced traction electric motors of locomotives are proposed. The proposed design solutions can be used both when creating new TED designs for promising locomotives and when upgrading serial designs. Thus, the application of the proposed design and technological solutions will increase the reliability of the diesel locomotives.
~~~Railways rolling stock, traction of trains and electrification~~~

Wear of the material of the locomotive wheel tire fresh

In this article, the process of wear of the material of the ridge of the wheel brace during the movement of the locomotive in a curve of a given radius is considered. The methodology of the study considered in this article was that, based on the expression for the depth of penetration of the rail head into the material of the bandage ridge, the movement of the wheel along the inner rail in the curve was considered. It was taken into account that the contact point on the ridge of the bandage will move along the edge of the rail with slippage and that the contact area is a fairly narrow surface with a border close to an ellipse. Formulas for calculating the speed and the slip path of the contact point of the ridge of the locomotive wheel brace with the rail are obtained. As a result of the study, equations were derived to estimate such quantities as the volume, intensity and wear rate of the bandage (per revolution of the wheel). It is shown that the expressions obtained as a result of the work carried out can be used to calculate the intensity of wear of the brace ridge when the locomotive is moving in a curve of a given radius. The amount of the ridges material wear of the wheelset bandages can be determined on the basis of the equations obtained individually for a specific locomotive series and a given range of its operation.

Railway track, survey and design of railways

~~~Railway track, survey and design of railways~~~

Control of the pressing forces of the pandrol fastclip fastening terminals on the sole of the rails

This article discusses the problem of loss of elastic properties of Pandrol Fastclip rail fasteners during operation. The research is related to predicting the dynamics of changes in the elastic properties of the Pandrol Fastclip clamping terminals during their long-term operation and provides for the creation of control methods (regulation) by pressing the fastening terminals on the sole of the rails, which guarantees the safety of trains with set speeds. On the basis of the conducted research, the design of a device that increases the pressing force of the fastening terminals on the sole of the rails has been developed. This device will provide optimal parameters for attaching rails to the sub-rail base at all stages of railway track operation. At the same time, there will be no need to replace the expensive imported elastic terminals of the Pandrol Fastclip fastening in cases of a decrease in the elasticity of the terminals in the current path. The research results are relevant for dozens of foreign railways where modifications of the Pandrol Fastclip fastener are operated: Pandrol Fastclip FC, Pandrol Fastclip FCA, Pandrol Fastclip FE, Pandrol 350, Pandrol SFC, Pandrol 1520, etc. The proposed technology for carrying out work to improve the technical condition of the intermediate rail fastening structure will not require the provision of "windows" in train schedules, which will not affect the carrying capacity and capacity of the railway track and will not affect the delays of scheduled trains.
~~~Railway track, survey and design of railways~~~

Energy approach to solving the problem of interaction between a wheel and a rail for an operational deployment railway track

Based on the proposal for the formation of a railway track for operational deployment without ballast using a sub-rail base with a viscoelastic element forcedly filled with Newton's fluid and laid on an unprepared surface without ballast, an example of calculating the interaction of a wheel and a rail with this element based on the energy method is given. The possibility of using the design of the under-rail device for the operational laying of a railway track in difficult conditions on an unprepared surface without a track ballast layer is substantiated. The elastic dynamic impact of a wheel on a rail with initial speeds along a sub-rail base in the form of a box with shells laid on an unprepared surface is considered. The kinetic energy of a wheel hitting a rail laid on the proposed under-rail base passes not only into the potential energy of deformation, but also into the energy of wave and oscillatory processes. To improve the accuracy of solving the problem of dynamic impact, the transition of a part of the energy into the energy of local deformations in the contact area of the wheel with the rail is taken into account. Within a short period of time after touching the wheel at a certain speed, all elements of the rail acquire a certain strain rate. It is assumed that at the moment of contact with the wheel, the rail does not change its original shape, and the decrease in the speed of the wheel occurs due to local deformation of the materials of the contacting bodies; this period of impact will last until the velocities of the two bodies are equalized, after which the shape of the middle surface of the rail, modeled by a Bernoulli-Euler beam, will begin to change. Since the kinetic energy of the wheel is converted into the potential energy of bending, it is taken into account in the calculation to take into account the mass of the impacted body as the load of the wheel on the rail.
~~~Railway track, survey and design of railways~~~

Technology for reinforcing the base of the subgrade at rail joints using geotextiles

This article presents promising and widely used in transport construction methods of earth bed reinforcement with the use of geotextile as a reinforcing and separating layer. It was suggested to lay down geotextile coverings manually in the zones of rail joints of an equalizing span of a continuous-flow track by 6-10 sleepers in each side of the joint, in all, 12-20 sleepers where high-speed and high-speed passenger traffic is expected. Basic technical requirements and restrictions on geometric dimensions for geotextile when reinforcing the main track bed are given. The technology of manual laying of reinforcing geotextiles when a small section of the railway track needs reinforcement during routine maintenance and repair of the railway track is given. The sequence of basic manual laying of geotextile coverings in the technological "windows" is described. Experimentally conducted work on the device coatings of geotextile manually in the areas of rail joints equalizing span of permanent way for 6 sleepers on each side of the junction in the railway sections of the Tashkent railway station (PCH-2). A design for reinforcement of the main ground in the areas of rail joints has been proposed. The basic requirements to quality control of construction works in structures with the use of a layer of geotextile materials are given.
~~~Railway track, survey and design of railways~~~

Passenger comfort as a track and rolling stock interaction indicator

The article deals with the issue of the interaction of the track and rolling stock and the relationship of factors affecting the comfort of passengers. Examples of passenger comfort indicators are given and possible causes of deviations in the track geometry are considered. The results of experimental trips are analyzed and the data obtained by standard diagnostic tools are presented. Natural irregularities in the plan and profile were constructed in the analyzed areas where comfort indicators were exceeded. The data presented demonstrate the use of an additional indicator of the interaction of the track and rolling stock, which is advisable to take into account to identify deviations in the geometry of the track gauge when carrying out work on the current maintenance of the track, since there are irregularities or combinations of irregularities in the track that have an increased dynamic impact. It is worth noting that currently not all irregularities are registered, and accordingly such irregularities are not eliminated. Using the «passenger comfort» indicator calculated from the accelerations occurring in the elements of the rolling stock, it is possible to determine the places and deviations of the geometry of the track gauge that affect the dynamic characteristics of the rolling stock, causing increased comfort indicators.
~~~Railway track, survey and design of railways~~~

Assessment of the noise impact of rolling stock on the residential area

The article shows the relevance of the problem of noise pollution of the environment by railway transport. The purpose of the research is to assess by calculation and instrumental methods the compliance of the existing noise levels in the residential area near the railway tracks with sanitary standards, to propose a set of noise protection measures and to substantiate their acoustic efficiency. The applied methods for measuring and calculating the equivalent and maximum noise levels of the rolling stock comply with the requirements of regulatory documents. The authors took into account the features of the propagation and shielding of sound waves in the existing residential area, background noise, and the traffic intensity of trains of various categories. The results of measurements, calculations and estimates of the noise generated by the rolling stock in the residential area in Omsk are presented. A significant excess of the maximum permissible equivalent and maximum noise levels in residential areas has been established. Comparison of the calculated and measured noise values, taking into account the standard uncertainty of the calculation methods and the expanded measurement uncertainty, showed quite satisfactory convergence of the results obtained and confirmed a significant excess of the sanitary noise standards. A set of measures is proposed to reduce the noise of railway rolling stock at the source of its occurrence and on the path of its propagation in the existing residential area. The dimensions of the embankments of the two sections of the railway tracks allow the installation of screens of low height up to 38 cm, the geometry of which is designed so that, in terms of reflection of the noise emitted by the rolling stock, they are at least equivalent to a standard noise protection wall 2 m high. For the track section located in the recess, it is proposed to install a noise barrier 6 m high and at least 1 km long. Its acoustic efficiency was calculated.
~~~Railway track, survey and design of railways~~~

The effectiveness of the technology of replacing rail lashes with the use of attachments

The article discusses the issues of using the technology of replacing inventory rails with rail lashes of a jointless track. For the production of works on the replacement of rail lashes, excavators on a combined course have been selected as the leading machines, which in recent years have been widely used in the production of works for the current maintenance and repair of the railway track. The paper presents the results of a comparative assessment of the use of rail lash replacement technology using attachments and using a pair of trolleys. In order to select the best technology for the production of works on the replacement of rail lashes, a methodology for assessing the economic efficiency of using a particular technology has been developed. The main indicator in the calculations were the given operating costs, taking into account the cost of the machine per unit of work, the cost of relocating the machine, the delay of trains, the wages of track fitters and the discharge of rail lashes. According to the results of the calculation, it was found that it is economically advantageous to replace rail lashes at the front of work up to 4 km using technology using a pair of trolleys, at the front of work more than 4 km, it is advisable to replace rail lashes using technology using attachments. The maximum economic effect when using technology with the use of attachments is achieved with a work front of 10 km. A comparison of the results of work on two technologies gives grounds to conclude that with a three-hour «window», the volume of work performed on the technology with the use of attachments is 1,7 times higher than the volume of work performed on the technology with the use of a pair of trolleys.