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Quarterly magazine OSTU agencies. Media registration number: ПИ № ФС77-75780 dated May 23, 2019. ISSN: 2220-4245. Subscription index in the official catalog "Subscription publications" of JSC "Russian Post": PP914.
The journal is included in the Russian Science Citation Index and in the List of Russian Scientific Journals .

Journal of Transsib Railway Studies V.4(48), 2021

Railways rolling stock, traction of trains and electrification

~~~Railways rolling stock, traction of trains and electrification~~~
2-11

Research of the forces acting on the latch of the vacuum switch vbo-25-20/630 uhl1

The experience gained in the operation of high-voltage vacuum circuit breakers VBO-25-20/ 630UHL1 indicates an incorrect assessment of the mechanical resource of its individual components and elements. Despite the repeated improvement of the design of the main switch drive, applicable both as part of the new «Ermak» series locomotives starting from number 1000 series, and in earlier numbers, the dynamics of malfunctions continues to persist to the present time. One of the most important elements of the main switch is a latch designed to hold the elements of the drive mechanism in the on position, the failure of the latch entails the failure of the entire section of the locomotive. The article considers three latch upgrades previously proposed by the manufacturer, a kinematic scheme of the drive with a vacuum arc-extinguishing chamber of the switch is developed, the parameters of the preload and trip springs in the drive are calculated, the forces operating during operation are determined. On the example of the latest modernization of the latch using the finite element method in the SolidWorks Simulation software package, a strength calculation was carried out, according to the results of which the stresses arising in its design were determined. As a result of the analysis of the finite element model, the forces critical for the structure are determined, a graph of the dependence of the structural strength margin and the maximum stress in the structure on the acting forces is developed. According to the results of the study, the force at which the most favorable value of the safety factor is provided is determined, for which it is proposed to reduce the critical force by changing the parameters of the compression springs and disconnecting the drive of the arc extinguishing chamber. A loading diagram with the drawing dimensions of two modified springs has been developed.
~~~Railways rolling stock, traction of trains and electrification~~~
11-22

Energy efficiency regenerative braking freight electric locomotives

The aim of the work is to study and evaluate the energy efficiency of regenerative braking of an electric locomotive when a freight train is moving at an unsteady and steady speed, to determine the degree of influence on the return of electricity of various factors, first of all, the mass of the train, the speed of movement, resistance to movement, the steepness of the slope of the track profile, driving conditions, the efficiency of traction motors and the needs of an electric locomotive own needs. Also, the purpose of the study is to develop recommendations for improving the energy efficiency of regenerative braking of an electric freight locomotive. Methods used: mathematical analysis, methods of traction calculations and energy balance. The equations of the energy balance of the movement of a freight train and its components in the mode of regenerative braking are considered, which make it possible to identify the main factors affecting the return of electricity at unsteady and steady speed. The calculated dependences of the return of electricity during regenerative braking of an electric locomotive with loaded and empty freight trains consisting of 71 four-axle cars, when moving with reduced speed and constant speed on sections of track with slopes of different steepness, characterizing the influence of individual factors on the return of electricity during regenerative braking of an electric locomotive, are obtained. It is shown that the specific return of electricity during regenerative braking of an electric locomotive with a loaded freight train weighing 7100 tons when moving with a decrease in speed on a track section with a zero profile is approximately the same as with a steady speed of movement on descents with a steepness of 6 ...7 ‰. The specific return of electricity during regenerative braking of an electric locomotive with an empty freight train weighing 1775 tons when moving with a decrease in speed on a track section with a zero profile is approximately the same as with a steady speed on descents with a steepness of 11 ‰ or more. The conditions under which the maximum return of electricity is achieved during regenerative braking of electric freight locomotives are determined. Recommendations have been developed to improve the energy efficiency of regenerative braking of electric freight locomotives.
~~~Railways rolling stock, traction of trains and electrification~~~
22-28

Control system of electromagnetic suspension with feedback of high-speed land transport

The subjects of the study are the problem of controlling the crew in space by means of an automatic system for controlling the gap between the electromagnet poles and ferro-rails in the system of high-speed land transport based on the levitation effect. One of the main conditions for comfortable levitation mode of the crew is the absence of vertical deformations of the crew during multipoint suspension due to non-uniform distribution of lifting and guiding forces. In order to ensure the stability of the crew's electromagnetic suspension, various combinations of control system feedbacks are proposed. The results of the study of the electromagnetic suspension control system using the electromagnet current feedback in the land speed vehicle levitation mode are presented. The main requirement to the control system of an electromagnetic suspension in the levitation mode is the maximum permissible deviation of the permissible air gap ±5 mm under the action of the impulse of the aerodynamic force in the horizontal plane and the speed of its application. The principle of subordinate regulation of the control system parameters with the use of regulators in accordance with the functional two-loop system of automatic regulation with current feedback has been proposed. The application of the double-loop automatic control system at supply voltage fluctuations corrects the electromagnet current and excludes the deviation of the maximum permissible gap between the electromagnet and the ferro-rail. The performed calculations prove that the introduction of the electromagnet current feedback decreases the velocity transfer coefficients and thus increases the signal speed.
~~~Railways rolling stock, traction of trains and electrification~~~
29-38

Investigation of the process of contactless measurement of the geometric parameters of the rolling surface of the wheelset of a wagon during planned types of repair

The subject of the study is the process of applying optical technologies for non-contact measurements of geometric parameters of a wagon wheelset during operation and repair. The purpose of the study is to study the methods of field testing of technologies for controlling the geometric parameters of car parts using an optical rangefinder, with mutual verification of the results obtained using numerical modeling using three-dimensional digital models of objects and measuring instruments. As a result of the study, experimental and calculated dependences of the optical sensor readings were obtained during the change in the relative position of the measuring object (wheelset) and the rangefinder. Two laser triangulation rangefinders were used for field tests. For numerical simulation, a program was created that allows generating a three-dimensional model of the rolling surface of a wheelset consisting of a set of points belonging to the surface of rotation. The simulation consists in finding the intersection points of a line defined using the coordinates of the point of the radiation source in space and the guiding vector with the model of the skating surface. After the calculations, the result is given in the form of a table with calculated ranges and visualized as projections of a three-dimensional wire model of a wheel and a rangefinder beam. Visualization of the numerical modeling process is important to avoid misinterpretation of the calculation results and to verify compliance with the physical meaning of the numerical data obtained during modeling. Comparison of graphs shows the convergence of the results and sufficient accuracy of numerical models and techniques that can be used in the future to plan full-scale tests of the designed techniques and equipment for dimensional control of railway car parts.
~~~Railways rolling stock, traction of trains and electrification~~~
39-46

Methodology of selecting compensating devices in the ac traction power supply system

The paper considers a traction power supply system with a voltage of 27,5 kV AC. In the MATLAB-Simulink software environment, a calculation model has been developed that takes into account the parameters of the external power supply system, the train schedule and the current consumption of the electric traction load in the inter-substation zone. It is shown that when choosing the power of the compensating device according to the average value of the reactive power consumed by one train, its passage through the inter-substation zone with direct current causes the same average power losses in the wires of the catenary as in the absence of a compensating device. An increase in the number of trains simultaneously located in the inter-substation zone with the same power of the compensating device entails a decrease in power losses in the wires of the catenary relative to a similar situation without a compensating device, however, the reactive power is only partially compensated. In the calculations of compensating devices, it is proposed to take into account the real existing train schedule, based on the probabilistic assessment of which the average daily reactive power consumed by the electric rolling stock is determined. In this case, it is necessary to take into account the power losses in the catenary. The use of unregulated compensating devices is advisable in areas with a constantly present load. When choosing step devices for transverse capacitive compensation, it is proposed to calculate their power based on a probabilistic analysis of the train traffic schedule and current consumption in the inter-substation zone. When the probability of the appearance of a certain number of trains exceeding 50%, the most effective are compensating devices, the power of which is selected on the basis of the average power consumption of all trains without taking into account the time of no load in the inter-substation zone, as well as two-stage devices, the power of the first stage of which is selected according to the current consumption of the two most likely occurrences of the number of trains.
~~~Railways rolling stock, traction of trains and electrification~~~
47-56

Mobile electricity storage system for temporary strengthening the dc traction power supply system

The article deals with the issue of using electric power storage systems in railway transport. It is noted that they are used in renewable energy sources and on hybrid shunting diesel locomotives. The possibility of using electric power storage systems to improve the efficiency of using electric power for train traction is indicated. The introduction of electric energy storage systems in the traction power supply system is hampered by high capital costs and the need to strengthen several adjacent inter-substation zones at once. It is proposed to consider the possibility of creating a mobile energy storage system, all the equipment of which will be placed in containers installed on cargo platforms, which will allow such a system to be quickly moved. The purpose of introducing a mobile power storage system is to temporarily strengthen the traction power supply system during a planned overhaul or emergency repair of one of the tracks on double-track sections of the railway. In this case, there is a need for a batch pass of trains alternately in even and odd directions on the same track. The possibility of using a mobile energy storage system is considered on the example of a real section of the railway. For a given schedule of passing train packages, the dependence of the storage capacity taken off from time, the maximum power and the nominal effective energy intensity of the storage system are determined. An estimate of the electricity storage system cost is given. It is shown that more than 70 % of the total cost of the electricity storage system falls on the imported energy conversion subsystem. It is concluded that it is necessary to develop domestic converter subsystems.
~~~Railways rolling stock, traction of trains and electrification~~~
57-65

Modeling of processes in the pantograph - catenary sliding contact in high-speed traffic

The article considers the processes of current collection in the system of AC electric traction in high-speed traffic. The existing devices of pantograph and catenary interacting by means of a sliding electrical contact are presented. The comparison of solutions with different horizontal geometry of the contact wire, which affects the speed of the lateral displacement of the contact wire at the catenary supports relative to the axis of the railway track, is given. It is shown that the speed at which the contact point moves along the pantograph strip is also important for assessing the wear of the sliding contact, as is the span length of the catenary supports, the curvature of the track and the speed of the train in the span limits. For the synthesis and analysis of the pair "pantograph strip - contact wire" with a sliding contact, a model for calculating the contact surface is obtained and the energy processes leading to wear of the components of the current collection system are considered. The results of modeling the interaction of the pantograph and the catenary with various variants of the zigzag arrangement of the contact wire are obtained. When implementing a technical solution in areas with high-speed traffic, the preferred method proposed in the article is the arrangement of the contact wire of a chain suspension with a zigzag period increased by two times compared to the traditional one. This solution provides a reduction in the speed of lateral displacement and increases the dynamic stability of the pantograph, reduces the cyclic load on the supporting and supporting structures of the catenary and increases the life of the contacting elements of the current collection system during high-speed traffic.
~~~Railways rolling stock, traction of trains and electrification~~~
66-76

Study of the effect of harmonic interference from a high voltage power line on the operation of a non-linear receiving device for continuous automatic locomotive signalling with a correlation decoder

This paper considers a continuous automatic locomotive signalling (CALS) receiver with a correlation decoder. The aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of harmonic interference from a high-voltage power line on the operation of a non-linear CALS receiver with a correlation decoder. The experimental study of the quality of operation of a non-linear CALS receiver with a correlation decoder under the influence of harmonic interference from high-voltage power lines was carried out using the simulation method. Simulation models of interference from a high-voltage power line (VPL), a receiver and a correlation decoder of the CALS channel were used in the study. The analysis of oscillograms obtained as a result of the study has shown that the correlation decoder has a number of features due to the algorithm of its functioning. The correlation decoder more confidently accepts code combinations with a duration of 1.6s (generated by the code track transmitter of CTT-5 type), than the duration of 1.86s (generated by the code track transmitter CTT-7). This is expressed in a shorter time interval of disturbance of the CALS non-linear receiving device. At decoding of the code combination (CC) with the duration of both 1.6 s and 1.86 s the situation of short-term decoding of the more permissive CC «Y» instead of «RY» was observed. However, the duration of these situations did not exceed two code cycles and would not have caused a more permissive light to appear at the locomotive traffic light. In general, the experiments have shown that the CALS CC correlation decoding algorithm needs improvement for more confident decoding of CCs produced by a code track transmitter of the CTT-7 type(1.86 s).
~~~Railways rolling stock, traction of trains and electrification~~~
76-84

Using of aluminum matrix composite materials in the parts of electric railway vehicles current collectors

The work is devoted to the consideration of the possibility of using composite materials with an aluminum matrix in the design of electric transport pantographs. Currently, there is a tendency to increase the speeds of electric transport. This fact requires reliable and high-quality current collection, which can be achieved by reducing the mass of the current collector design, including through the use of composite materials. The possibility of using composite materials in parts and assemblies of current collectors operating under conditions of increased current loads and at high speeds of movement and the mechanical characteristics of the traditional ones used in the carriage design and the composite materials proposed for use are analyzed. The design of a carriage of high-speed electric rolling stock has been developed, in which an aluminum matrix composite material was used as a structural material. Statistical modeling using the finite element method in the SOLIDWORKS Simulation software package was performed. Comparison of the strength characteristics of carriage assemblies made of traditional materials and aluminum matrix composite showed the possibility of reducing their weight in the case of composite use without reducing the strength of structural elements. The static characteristic of the carriage in which the composite material was used coincides with the static characteristic of the carriage made of traditional materials, which confirms the possibility of using an aluminum matrix composite without making significant changes to the carriage design. To evaluate the dynamic characteristics of the composite carriage and its effect on the dynamic characteristics of the pantograph, modeling was carried out using the methods of multibody modeling of SOLIDWORKS Motion. The obtained simulation results indicate an improvement in dynamic characteristics when using composite materials, which has a beneficial effect on the reliability and quality of current collection.
~~~Railways rolling stock, traction of trains and electrification~~~
85-96

Determination of electric rolling stock operational indicators optimal values according to the criterion of energy efficiency

The article deals with the issue of improving the energy efficiency of DC and AC electric locomotives operated at the enterprises of JSC “Russian Railways». The main goals and objectives of the development program and energy strategy of JSC «Russian Railways» are analyzed and briefly considered. In accordance with these tasks, the relevance of scientific research in the field of improving the energy efficiency of electric locomotives is substantiated. The current data on traction rolling stock, on modern traction resource management systems and on Russian and foreign scientific research in the field of energy efficiency are analyzed. As a result of the analysis, it was found that most of the studies are aimed at studying the influence of key operational factors on energy efficiency indicators, so, in this case, on the specific power consumption for train traction. However, the reverse question has been poorly studied - the selection of the train mass and the technical speed on the basis of a preliminary assessment of the specific power consumption for train traction by analyzing the statistical data of trips on a certain section of the railway. The purpose of this study is to assess the possibility and develop a method for determining the optimal values of the key parameters of the operation of electric freight locomotives in order to achieve maximum operational efficiency in relation to them according to the criterion of energy efficiency. Two models were created in the program «Complex of calculations of traction power supply» (CORTES) - for DC and AC electric locomotives, describing the dependence of the energy efficiency indicator (specific power consumption for train traction) on operational indicators, such as the train mass and the technical speed. The initial data for further modeling were obtained by modeling trips on a conditional site.
~~~Railways rolling stock, traction of trains and electrification~~~
96-108

Formation of a mathematical model of electric locomotives 2es6 vertical oscillations taking into account the dynamics wheel-motor units

The article presents an analysis of the failures of the mechanical components of the mainline electric locomotives 2ES6 «Sinara» in operation at the landfill of the West Siberian Railway, the causes and consequences of failures of the most vulnerable nodes are determined. The analysis of failures of the mechanical components showed that a significant share of them falls on the components of the wheel-motor unit of the locomotive. The analysis of the design features of the crew part is carried out. The main structural difference of suspension is the absence of leaf springs in the axle box stage, which were widely used on electric locomotives of previous generations. In the body stage, helical springs (Flexicoil) are used instead of the cradle suspension. The connection of the traction motor with the trolley frame is a pendulum. The suspension of the traction motor to the trolley frame is carried out through a leash. When considering the vibrations of railway carriages, it is customary to represent the locomotive and the track as a single mechanical system. The task of forming a mathematical model of the «electric locomotive - path» system is set and a mathematical model of vertical vibrations of an electric locomotive is formed taking into account the dynamics of wheel-motor blocks based on the Lagrange equation of the second kind in the form of a matrix equation, which allows us to assess the loading of mechanical components in operation. The mathematical model represents a system of differential equations in which six equations determine the fluctuations of the bouncing and galloping of the body and trolleys, four - the galloping of wheel-motor blocks, four - the bouncing of wheel pairs together with the reduced mass of the track. The obtained mathematical model makes it possible to determine the level of dynamic loading of the components of the mechanical part of the electric locomotive 2ES6 «Sinara» by integrating the matrix equation using the MathCAD application package.

Transport and transport-technological systems of the country, its regions and cities, organization of production in transport

~~~Transport and transport-technological systems of the country, its regions and cities, organization of production in transport~~~
109-129

Digitalization of the road transport and railway industries as a key element of the digital economy

This article discusses the directions of digitalization of the transport industry, both in the Russian Federation and in foreign countries. The characteristic of the directions of digitalization of the transport industry as elements of the technological revolution (industry 4.0) is presented. The review of approaches and various digital platforms used for digitalization of the transport industry to identify and analyze the main vectors of development in the field of digitalization of the transport industry. Comparative data on the costs of the digital economy and R&D in Europe, the USA and Russia are presented. The large-scale penetration of digital technologies is shown, both at the managerial level and at the technological level, which in turn allows enterprises to make timely operational decisions during operational activities in order to increase the asset utilization rate, and also allows for the integration of all business processes of the enterprise through the use of IT technologies in the process approach of determining the relationship of business processes, four main directions of digitalization processes in the transport industry are identified The main directions of digitalization processes in the transport industry are highlighted. Examples of the introduction of digital technologies in road and rail transport in Russia and the world are given. The work of local digital information platforms in a single digital platform of the transport complex is reviewed. The advantages of using digital information platforms are shown. A model of a unified digital transport business-logistics ecosystem is proposed.
~~~Transport and transport-technological systems of the country, its regions and cities, organization of production in transport~~~
129-138

Improvement of the mathematical model of the delivery time of wagonload cargo by rail

The method of determining the costs of technological time of processing trains en route has been improved, taking into account the duration of all operations performed by wagons at stations for the effective organization of freight transportation technology on railway transport. A model for calculating the delivery time of goods has been developed to correctly determine the time spent by loaded wagons en route. A method has been developed for determining the time spent on technological operations at stations and the delivery time of goods. The developed method allows you to determine and plan in advance the amount of work that will be performed at the stations. The indicators affecting the duration of the time of delivery of the cargo are given. An improved formula for determining the delivery time of goods by rail is recommended. The article proposes a technology for calculating the daily mileage rate of wagon shipments, depending on the technological operations performed with wagons at stations and the distance of transportation. The reliability of the research results is confirmed by the use of modern calculation methods. Theoretical studies were conducted on the basis of the laws of mathematical statistics. The scientific significance of the results obtained is characterized by the improvement of methods for determining the costs of the technological time of processing trains and the timing of cargo delivery based on the systematization of conditionally constant and random factors affecting the transportation process on railway transport.

Improvement of industrial heat systems, thermotechnical and heat equipment

~~~Improvement of industrial heat systems, thermotechnical and heat equipment~~~
139-148

Evaluation of effect from implementation of energy-saving measures in heat supply systems

When developing a set of organizational and technical energy saving measures, it is necessary to correctly assess the feasibility of using certain measures not only in terms of return on investment, but also based on the technological process of the enterprise. It is necessary to take into account not only the current parameters of the installed equipment, but also other, important factors: the degree of equipment utilization during the year, since this parameter in the equipment during the inter-heating period, as a rule, is significantly less than in the heating period. It should also take into account the prospects for the development of the enterprise. Many modern energy-saving technologies have a long payback period, and this is caused not so much by a small energy-saving effect as by the low popularity and low demand for these technologies, which leads to high purchase and maintenance costs. With the right choice and operation of equipment of this kind, an enterprise can significantly reduce the cost of its products and increase its competitiveness in the market. The article discusses the issues of approaches to assessing the potential of energy saving and the choice of priority areas for increasing the energy efficiency of heat supply systems of industrial enterprises. The described energy saving measures are applicable to the majority of existing heat supply systems and are the most common. The given procedures for assessing the technical and economic effect allow us to pre-evaluate the significance and feasibility of applying a particular event.