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Quarterly magazine OSTU agencies. Media registration number: ПИ № ФС77-75780 dated May 23, 2019. ISSN: 2220-4245. Subscription index in the official catalog "Subscription publications" of JSC "Russian Post": PP914.
The journal is included in the Russian Science Citation Index and in the List of Russian Scientific Journals .

Journal of Transsib Railway Studies V.3(51), 2022

Railways rolling stock, traction of trains and electrification

~~~Railways rolling stock, traction of trains and electrification~~~

Influence of dry friction forces on stability movement of freight cars

The article considers the dynamic processes of the oscillatory system «wagon - way», its mathematical model is formed and its features are established. The analysis of existing approaches to the consideration of the influence of dissipative forces on the stability of rolling stock is carried out, their shortcomings are revealed. When composing dynamic process equations, it is important to proceed from their exact expressions when considering kinetic and potential energy, i.e. to take into account the relationship between generalized coordinates, which will allow us to consider in detail the process of rolling stock oscillations. The zone of autoparametric resonance is found. It is established that dry friction forces do not interfere with parametric resonance. Dynamic equations are compiled taking into account the scattering forces arising in the contact points of the structural elements of the car. The influence of dry friction forces on the critical coefficient of parametric excitation is determined. The areas of dynamic instability of a car when moving along a railway track with different characteristics are determined. The features of the behavior of the system under the influence of dry friction forces are revealed. It is established that dry friction forces do not reduce the amplitude of bouncing and can lead to an increase in lateral pitching vibrations due to energy pumping.
~~~Railways rolling stock, traction of trains and electrification~~~

Modern electric locomotive automation control systems analysis

The subject of the article is automated locomotive control functions on the example of electric locomotives in order to assess the current stage of development of the intellectual functionality of on-board control systems. The literature often talks about creating a «smart» or «digital» locomotive. However, it is more correct to talk about the introduction of cybernetic systems with feedback. Such systems were on the locomotive from the very beginning of their appearance and were designed to automate steam control, later to control automatic brakes. These automation systems were mechanical and pneumomechanical. With the advent of electric locomotives, electrical automation systems based on electrical devices, relay circuits are being introduced, which are eventually replaced by diode, transistor control circuits. Later, digital and analog chips were used. The current stage of automation development is associated with on-board microprocessor control systems. The author proposes to divide the intellectual functions of the locomotive into seven directions, for each of which to evaluate their implementation: train driving, drive and brake control, diagnostics, collection of emergency circuits, ensuring train safety, managing the comfort of the locomotive crew. The entropy of the space of intelligent functions is proposed to be estimated according to the modified Shannon formula, where, in addition to the probability of the function being in demand for one trip, the degree of automation of the control process is taken into account. As a result of the analysis, it is shown that the intellectual functions of the locomotive developed already in the 19th century, today the degree of their implementation can be estimated at 60 %, and full implementation can be expected by the middle of the 21st century. The calculation results are summarized in two tables and one dynamic graph. It is concluded that an "intelligent" locomotive is a stage in the evolutionary development of automated locomotive control systems.
~~~Railways rolling stock, traction of trains and electrification~~~

Improvement of methods and algorithms for calculating energy indicators of traction power supply system with adjustable devices

The calculation of the performance indicators of the traction power supply system in steady-state modes is focused on solving a wide range of tasks related to the choice of parameters of the power equipment of traction substations, the placement of linear equipment, the cross section of the contact suspension, the comparison of options for technical and economic indicators. Currently, the appearance of various regulated devices in the traction power supply system necessitates the improvement of calculation methods and algorithms used in various software complexes. In this paper, the issues of constructing substitution schemes for modeling the operation of the traction power supply system in steady-state modes, taking into account the devices for automatic switching on and off of the backup converter unit of the traction substation and the accumulation of electricity. The corresponding substitution schemes and fragments of calculation algorithms that take into account the characteristics and operating modes of these devices are presented. The use of the proposed substitution schemes allows us to take into account in the calculations the difference in the external characteristics of the converter units, to assess the compliance of the automation settings with the level of electric traction load and the effect of the device on the voltage level on the substation tires and in the contact network, the load capacity of traction substations, and for the accumulation device, taking into account the charging and discharge characteristics, to additionally assess the impact on the effectiveness of regenerative braking. The proposed algorithms of the devices are designed to improve the methods of calculating the indicators of the traction power supply system. The paper proposes an improved method for calculating the indicators of the traction power supply system, based on simultaneous traction and electrical calculations, based on the database of calculations performed for various conditions of electric rolling stock on the railway section.
~~~Railways rolling stock, traction of trains and electrification~~~

Optimization of standards of repair runs in locomotives series 2(3,4)es5k on the basis of failures of the traction motor

System of preventive maintenance and maintenance of the operable condition of the traction rolling stock. The subject of a global study of failures of traction motors in the event of a breakdown on the territory of the service locomotive depot «Dalnevostochnoye» and «Primorskoye» for 2019. The purpose of the study is to determine the possible norms of overhaul runs for the considered node in order to achieve the optimal number of locomotive calls for unscheduled repairs. In the work, the correct law of distribution of traction motor (TED) failures, the determination of the Sturgess, Pearson coefficients and other methods of mathematical statistics and the theory of justification of systems. The article defines an element that limits the norms of overhaul runs of traction motors; the theoretical distribution of traction motor failures due to a decrease in the insulation resistance of its windings has been obtained. As part of the study, the optimization of the norms of overhaul runs was carried out according to the conditions for conducting maintenance regarding the traction motor. As a result of the analysis of the causes of failures, it was found that more cases of placing locomotives for unscheduled repairs occur in the first mileage interval of locomotives due to poor quality diagnostics at TR-1 upon measuring the resistance of the insulation windings. Most of the failures occurring in the first period of operation are not associated with a change in the reliability of the considered node. When considering two normal peaks of failures, falling on the operating time intervals 14-21 and 28-35, the necessity of optimizing the norms of overhaul runs is determined. When considering two normal peaks of failures, falling on the operating time intervals 14-21 and 28-35, the necessity of optimizing the norms of overhaul runs is determined. The practical significance of the study lies in the possibility of using the option of optimizing the norms of overhaul runs to adjust the norms of maintenance and repair periods within specific depots.
~~~Railways rolling stock, traction of trains and electrification~~~

Development of technical solutions for the system life support of passenger cars

The article considers technical solutions to improve the quality of life support system in long-distance passenger trains (PVPDS), in particular in the water supply and ventilation systems, which ensure safe and comfortable passenger travel conditions. The quality of water in the coach is determined by the conditions of initial water filling at the intermediate stations, which can be adversely affected by the sanitary condition of the storage tank. Currently filters are installed in the ventilation system, efficiency of which is questionable in pandemic conditions. Scientific works and elaborations of native and foreign scientists, up-to-date concepts of organizing comfortable conditions in the PVPDS, as well as methodical and normative-reference materials on the given theme were used when writing the article. The effectiveness of the proposed method was confirmed in the course of experimental research, the results of which were used in the implementation of the investment project "Clean Water" of JSC "Russian Railways". Technical solutions have been proposed to improve the quality of life support systems using ozonization technology. Their realization will allow the life support system to operate in the water purification and disinfection mode and sterilization the air environment in the PVPDS. The condition for the efficient use is the availability of compressed air for the ejector operation in the mode of supplying the ozone-air mixture required for water and air cleaning and disinfection in the car. Ozonization is performed separately in the automatic mode. The ozone method for solving the problems of life support in coach cars is a perspective direction consider its generality and, therefore, ability of using it on the infrastructure objects for disinfection and sterilization of premises, reserved volumes and production capacities.
~~~Railways rolling stock, traction of trains and electrification~~~

To the possibility of using a linear scanner to create means of technical control of geometric parameters of the longitudinal section of the rolling surface of the railcar wheel

The subject of the study is the theoretical and practical aspects of the application of optical technologies for non-contact measurements of geometric parameters of a wagon wheelset during operation and repair. The purpose of the study is to develop methods and technologies for monitoring geometric parameters of car parts using an optical linear scanner, as well as a method for processing the results of field tests of the results of the application of optical control technologies. The article analyzes the problems of application of standardized methods of technical condition monitoring using manual measuring and control tools in the context of the adopted technology of maintenance and operation of freight cars. As a result of the study, a review of the state of the issue of the use of optical control techniques on the railway was carried out, the strengths and weaknesses of various options for the implementation of measurement techniques were identified and a methodology and a computer program for automating the creation of a digital standard of the object under study (the profile of the longitudinal section of the rolling surface of the wheelset) were developed. Using a digital two-dimensional image of the shadow pattern of the wheel profile, the coordinates of the points of the contour line of the section of the volumetric wheel in the area of the rolling surface are calculated. To determine the coordinates of the envelope of the section, a step function is used, as close as possible to the chiaroscuro image of the wheel contour. After image processing, the result is output by the program in the form of a table with the calculated coordinates of the profile section and visualized using the wheel profile synthesized by coordinates in the program window. The accuracy of the technique used depends on the resolution of the image obtained by the linear scanner. The methodology and program can be used in the future for field tests of the designed equipment for dimensional control of car parts.
~~~Railways rolling stock, traction of trains and electrification~~~

Studies of the distribution of thermal stresses in three-section brake pads of freight cars during movement

In this article, with the help of software, the relationship between the structure of the material of the brake pad and the temperature distribution of thermal stress on it is established. Spatio-temporal distributions of thermal stresses were analytically determined for the surface layer of the friction element based on the model of a three-section brake pad with non-fixed edges. At present, shoe brake is widely used for freight trains. It converts dynamic energy into thermal energy using the friction between the pads and the wheel, and then dissipates the thermal energy through a heat exchanger. This process includes heat transfer, design features, mechanical characteristics, material properties and other. The article pays special attention to the brake pad pressure, braking mode, brake pad material and other factors. Modeling of thermal effects is the most important in the design of vehicle parts and assemblies. Thermal research is an important step in the study of braking systems namely railway vehicles, where it is necessary to breakе large masses, since the thermal load on the braked railway wheel prevails compared to other types of loads. In this paper, the thermal stress on the friction element of the shoe during braking is investigated. In frictional braking, the process of friction between the brake pad and the wheel occurs at the points of actual contact. The heat flow from the points of actual contact spreads over the entire geometric area of the block.
~~~Railways rolling stock, traction of trains and electrification~~~

Evaluation of dynamic loading of wheel-motor units of electric locomotives 2es6

The article sets the task of determining the level of dynamic loading in the «trolley-leash-traction motor» subsystem to reduce the dynamic impact in the «locomotive-path» system. The model of vertical vibrations of traction rolling stock, obtained on the basis of the Lagrange equation of the second kind, in the form of a system of fourteen differential equations allows us to estimate the loading of locomotive units in operation, integrated using the MathCAD application package. The approximation of random disturbances using the spectral density of the path irregularity of Professor A. I. Belyaev is chosen as the spectral density of random disturbances. A more detailed design scheme of the crew has been compiled and in order to simplify the calculation within the engineering error, a single-mass discrete model of the path is used. Entering symmetric coordinates allows us to obtain from the original system of differential equations a simplified system with characteristic equations with simple roots, therefore, the natural oscillation frequencies of the bouncing of the body, trolley and wheelset will be determined with minimal error. The transfer function is determined by Kramer's formulas. With the help of a computer, the values are calculated and graphs of the amplitude-frequency characteristics of vertical movements, maximum accelerations of the body, trolley, traction motor and wheelset of the electric locomotive in question are constructed. A comparative analysis of the calculation results and empirical data is carried out. Based on a comparative analysis, it can be argued that the considered mathematical model of vibrations of the electric locomotive 2ES6 «Sinara» is adequate and allows determining the dynamic loading of the locomotive for the entire range of operating speeds. The task of changing the existing design of the suspension system of the traction electric motor of the electric locomotive in question and the mathematical analysis of the vibrations of its nodes in further research is set.
~~~Railways rolling stock, traction of trains and electrification~~~

Statistical investigations of acoustic control signals in diagnostic of power transformers

The article presents statistical studies of acoustic control signals when diagnosing power transformers of the railway power supply system. Statistical processing of acoustic monitoring data was carried out on the example of transformers with different levels of insulation condition. Comparisons of histograms of the experimental distribution of amplitudes and dominant frequencies of signals with the nearest theoretical distribution laws, performed in the STATISTICA program according to control data obtained from the automated system. The conducted studies have shown a close correlation of defects registered by the acoustic method with the distribution of signals in the form of laws of distribution of random variables. It is shown that for power transformers with mechanical oscillations, both during the passage of the train and at idle, the distribution of amplitudes and dominant frequencies of the recorded signals corresponds to a uniform law. The distribution of amplitudes and dominant frequencies is not centered around a certain average value. For power transformers containing partial discharges, the cause of which is the deterioration of the insulating properties of the windings under the influence of high voltage, the best approximation, both amplitudes and dominant frequencies, showed the Lognormal distribution. The signals are centered around a characteristic mean value. When the train passes, the acoustic system registers both high-frequency signals from the PD and low-frequency signals from body vibrations. There are two components in the distribution law - uniform and lognormal distribution densities. Thus, by the type of distribution of the recorded signals, their amplitude and dominant frequency, it is possible to determine the presence of a defective state of the insulation of power transformers. The study was carried out with the financial support of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research within the framework of the scientific project No. 20-38-90231.
~~~Railways rolling stock, traction of trains and electrification~~~

Determination of stresses and the depth of mutual penetration of the materials of the rail head and the locomotive wheel tire fresh in the area of their force contact

Issues related to the wear of the rail and wheel tread of a locomotive are always of great interest to both operational services and scientists. Knowledge of the influence of technical and operational factors on the intensity of wear of the materials of the contacting bodies would save material and financial resources. The proposed article is devoted to determining one of these parameters, namely, the depth of indentation of the material of the rail head into the material of the wheel rim flange. The force interaction of the bandage crest and the rail head occurs mainly at the level of irregularities in the contact area. The wear of the material of the contacting bodies will be determined by the depth of penetration of irregularities in the contact area and the speed of relative slip. An important parameter for assessing the magnitude and nature of wear is the relative penetration depth of the contacting bodies. In this case, the magnitude of the collapse of one of the contacting bodies is equal to the depth of penetration of another body into it. Calculations of the main radii of curvature of the surfaces of the rail head and bandage crest at the point of their contact are made, and the dimensions of the contact area are determined. As a result, expressions were obtained for calculating the depth of mutual penetration of the materials of the shroud crest and the rail head. The rail head material has a deeper penetration into the shroud tongue material. The force contact between the bandage crest and the rail occurs mainly within the limits of plastic deformation of their materials. Formulas are obtained for determining the magnitude of the approach of the contacting bodies and the highest normal stress in the contact zone. An estimate of the values of the collapse of the material of the rail head and the bandage crest was made, which makes it possible to judge the percentage of their wear. With force contact, the wear of the wheel rim flange is much higher than the wear of the rail head.
~~~Railways rolling stock, traction of trains and electrification~~~

Innovative method of determining the coefficient of friction in the «pad - wheel» system

In this article, the currently existing methods for determining such a technical parameter as the sliding friction coefficient were considered. The coefficient of friction is one of the main parameters characterizing the operation of tribological pairs of any engineering system. Stable and efficient operation of tribological pairs in such systems, along with high strength and fatigue characteristics, are not only the basis of safety, but also a promising direction in terms of economic benefits in the design and operation of various devices and systems. Accordingly, this area of research is very relevant for the railway industry, and for railway rolling stock in particular. This is caused by a large number of friction pairs in different nodes of passenger and freight cars, locomotives, ensuring safe and uninterrupted movement of rolling stock as a whole on iron drogs. Tribological processes are important both directly during movement and during braking processes. In this matter, the factor of determining and analyzing the sliding friction coefficient comes to the fore. One of these friction pairs is the «pad-wheel» system, which is the executive body of the braking system of a railway train. Optimization of contact in this system is one of the determining factors for the growth of braking efficiency during braking, increasing the working life of the elements of the friction pair, reducing the likelihood of defects. The search for new approaches to the study of friction issues is a direct catalyst for scientific and technological progress in the engineering industry.
~~~Railways rolling stock, traction of trains and electrification~~~

Assessment of voltage losses in the ac traction network for two different types of the locomotive’s rectifier-inverter converters: on thyristors or igbt-transistors

The paper deals with benefits of a new rectifier-inverter converter of an electric locomotive based on IGBT-transistors. Main directions of heavy haul traffic's development are considered for Siberia and Russian Far East electrified railways. Throughput and carrying capacity of power supply devices extremely depends on the voltage level in the catenary network of electrified sections of railways. Objects of our research are electric parameters of the 25 kV, 50 Hz AC traction power supply system. Operation parameters of two different types of the electric locomotive’s rectifier-inverter converters are calculated and discussed. We investigated operation parameters for thyristor-based and IGBT-transistors- based rectifier-inverter converter. Current and voltage curves for the thyristor and the transistor type of the rectifier-inverter converter are given and discussed. Similarity factor of current curves for electric locomotives was calculated by equivalent sinusoid’s .method. Quantitative assessment of the voltage level, currents and voltage losses in the AC catenary network is given. The graph-analytical method was used for constructing currents and voltages vector diagrams. It is proved that electric locomotives with a new rectifier-inverter conversion based on IGBT transistors provides a reducing of the total voltage losses in three times in the traction network comparing the thyristor conversion's operation.
~~~Railways rolling stock, traction of trains and electrification~~~

Influence of the transportation process technology on the electric freight locomotives exploitation efficiency

Improving the efficiency of the main activities of JSC «Russian Railways» is currently a relevant and significant issue. According to the provisions of the company main strategic documents, the key performance indicators for the locomotives are to be improved by 2025 and continue so until 2035. The paper deals with the analysis of problems and proposals for improving the management of electric locomotives that carry most of goods on the railways of the Russian Federation. The paper analyzes the possibilities to improve the main operational indicators of locomotive complex by increasing the efficiency of the organization of electric locomotives operation. One of the key performance indicators of the locomotive complex is the average daily performance of electric locomotives. To improve this indicator, it is necessary to increase the amount of work per unit of electric traction rolling stock. The given paper proposes two ways to achieve this. Firstly, it is the qualitative improvement of advantageous locomotives, increasing their traction properties; secondly, the improvement of the technology used to manage traction systems. The paper shows that in order to achieve the company targets, JSC «Russian Railways» has to necessarily implement the second solution, namely, introduce and improve the polygon technologies for managing traction resources and switch to extended railroad hauls of electric locomotives. The paper presents the main requirements and conditions for implementing these technical solutions.

Transport and transport-technological systems of the country, its regions and cities, organization of production in transport

~~~Transport and transport-technological systems of the country, its regions and cities, organization of production in transport~~~

Substantiation of factors affecting the technology of contrailer transportation

Intermodal transportation management is a complex and responsible process. When carrying out international and intercontinental contrailer transportation, rail transport is traditionally used. The task of railway transport is to ensure transportation along the so-called «land bridges» - land sections where the route begins or ends, or through which it passes in transit. Despite a significant level of computerization and informatization, the level of delays in the delivery of goods in the field of contrailer intermodal transportation does not decrease. The unsatisfactory progress of the contrailer trains is a significant factor in the occurrence of these delays. This problem is common, and not only appears before intermodal operators operating the Siberian and Eurasian continental land bridges, which pass through the territory of Russia and Kazakhstan, respectively, and for the delivery of goods from Japan, South Korea and Taiwan to the countries of Eastern Europe. Named problem applies to the American and Canadian land bridges, through which Japanese goods reach consumers in the United States and Canada and through the ports of Germany and the Netherlands to consumers in Western Europe. This situation is due to the lack of effective approaches to the construction of control systems that would demonstrate a high level of efficiency in conditions of uncertainty, which is a natural component of the transportation process.
~~~Transport and transport-technological systems of the country, its regions and cities, organization of production in transport~~~

Transport and logistics architecture of multimodal transportation of the amur basin

In the context of the sanctions policy of Western countries the main economic partners of Russia and consumers of commodity flows are the countries of the Asia-Pacific region (APR). According to the results of 8 months of 2022, the trade turnover between the Russian Federation and the People's Republic of China (PRC), according to the General Customs Administration of the People's Republic of China, increased by 31,4 % and amounted to $ 117,2 billion [1]. The People's Republic of China borders on the southern regions of the Russian Far East - the Amur Region, the EAO, the Primorsky, Zabaikalsky and Khabarovsk Territories. There are 9 border checkpoints located in the Khabarovsk Territory: air, river, mixed, automobile, sea, which makes it possible to form new multimodal transport routes for the delivery of foreign trade goods. The purpose of the work is to consider alternative options for multimodal transportation of foreign trade cargo flows through the transport network of the Khabarovsk Territory and transshipment points of the Amur Basin. The objectives of this study are: analysis of the volume of foreign trade turnover between Russia and China, development of technological schemes for the transportation of containers in the direction of «river ports of China - Khabarovsk River Port (RF) - land transport - western regions», consideration of promising routes for the transportation of foreign trade goods through cargo and passenger checkpoints «Pokrovka - Zhaohe» and Bolshoy Ussuriysky Island of the Amur swimming pool. The subject of this study is the transport and logistics infrastructure of international multimodal routes of the Amur Basin. In this work, theoretical research methods are used, including system analysis and synthesis of information. The article examines the characteristics of the terminal and logistics infrastructure of the Amur Basin river ports, the dynamics of container transportation by river transport from the ports of China to the terminals of the Khabarovsk River Port, gives a feasibility study for the organization of a permanent customs control zone at the Khabarovsk II station, and also describes the advantages of using the Pokrovka - Zhaohe border checkpoint as an element of an alternative multimodal container transportation routes. In the final part of the work, a description of the simulation model of the operation of a mixed (automobile-river) checkpoint in the presence of customs and transit terminals for assessing the capacity of border checkpoints of the Far Eastern District is presented.